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The Timeless Infinite Universe

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  Part One
Cosmic Absolutes
  Part Two
Two Types of Order
  Part Three

The Intent of Time

The Ultimate Attractor
  Part Four
Symmetry Mathematics
(Page Two)

  Advanced Study -
The Cosmology of Symmetry
Convergence: Why Spacetime is Systematic and Orderly

Time's Arrow of Many Directions

Zero is not Nothing and Flat Space is not Empty












Every scientific theory has a philosophical history, one that should not be forgotten. I've traced questions about infinity backward to philosophers such as Lucretius, Zeno, and Parmenides. Since learning of it, I have not forgotten the story of the brilliant and passionate Giordano Bruno, the Italian philosopher who lived only four hundred years ago. Each philosopher posed questions still valid today. Each was a visionary on the subject of infinite worlds and forever time. Bruno, however, lived in the time of the inquisition.

Giordano Bruno

The Italian Philosopher Giordano Bruno was sixteen years older than Galileo. Bruno primarily taught the skill of memory but also espoused all throughout Europe the doctrine that there are an infinite number of other worlds. In 1584 Giordano wrote a thesis entitled "On the Infinite Universe and Worlds." Bruno argued that if a person believes it logical that even one other world likely exists, that it reasonably follows that all other worlds exist. Giordano writes: 

We are not compelled to define a number, we who say that there is an infinite number of worlds; there no distinction exists of odd or even, since these are differences of number, not of the innumerable. Nor can I think there have ever been philosophers who, in positing several worlds, did not posit them also as infinite: for would not reason, which demands something further beyond this sensible world, so also outside of and beyond whatever number of worlds is assumed, assume again another and another?

Bruno's conception of infinities is not like that of Georges Cantor, the mathematician. Bruno described equal infinities within other infinities:

Whatever is an element of the infinite must be infinite also; hence both Earths and Suns are infinite in number. But the infinity of the former, is not greater than of the latter; nor where all are inhabited, are the inhabitants in greater proportion to the infinite than the stars themselves.

His writings clearly portray a strong sense of a unity to being and eternity, or infinite time, as he writes:

Everywhere is one soul, one spirit of the world, wholly in the whole and in every part of it, as we find in our lesser world also. This soul...produces all things everywhere; so that for the generations of some even time is not required...

And we find in Bruno's writings that his view of a holistic infinite universe was intertwined with his belief and view of one perfect God. 

Therefore the perfect, absolutely and in itself, is one, infinite, which cannot be greater or better, and than which nothing can be greater or better. This is one, everywhere, the only God, universal nature, of which nothing can be a perfect image or reflection, but the infinite.

However, Bruno's moving faith in a unity of God and nature did not save him from the ecclesiastic members of the Christian Catholic inquisition, who considered his beautiful vision to be heresy. In 1591 Bruno returned home to Italy where a man named Mocenigo made accusations of heresy that brought Bruno to the attention of the inquisition. He was imprisoned for over six years in Rome and then brutally burned to death early in the year 1600, after repeatedly refusing to recant his beliefs. It was perhaps the most gross crime ever committed in order to limit the definition of reality. However, it may be that such crimes, and the fortitude of Giordano, wizened and forged the resolve of men like Galileo who would weaken the power of the inquisition, eventually leading to a new light of human understanding shined by scientific discovery.

Everything Forever; Learning to See and Model All Possible Universes

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