Learning to See everythingforever.com
The Timeless Infinite Universe

Foreword  |  Homepage  |  Part One  |  Part Two  |  Part Three  |  Part Four  |  Contents  |  Forward  |  e-mail

  Part One
Cosmic Absolutes
  Part Two
Two Types of Order
  Part Three

The Intent of Time

The Ultimate Attractor
  Part Four
Symmetry Mathematics
(Page Two)

  Advanced Study -
The Cosmology of Symmetry
Convergence: Why Spacetime is Systematic and Orderly

Time's Arrow of Many Directions

Zero is not Nothing and Flat Space is not Empty










































































































Related  Links

Cosmology from the Top Down (astro-ph/0305562)
Copyright 2003


Five years ago scientists discovered the expansion of the universe is accelerating, which indicates the direction of time is on a crash course with absolute zero. Absolute zero, similar to the alpha state of the big bang, is an extreme or ultimate boundary in physical reality, beyond which no other possibilities exist. In other words, the greater infinite universe is ultimately constrained by what is physically possible, and so the timeless world of possibilities has a shape which can be mapped.

(Looking Back in Time - This page written in 2001)

Flat Space
Some perspective on the shape of all possible universes

The world's leading astro-physicists continue to discover evidence that the universe is now expanding at an accelerating rate. Only a short time ago scientists believed the rate of expansion would forever be slowing down, or else gravity would reverse the entire process of expansion and cause the universe to collapse inward. One of the greater efforts in astro-physics over the past ten years has been toward determining which of these two futures will occur. 

When the data came in we realized neither of the existing models were correct. Although the expansion of the entire cosmos has slowed since the Big Bang, the rate of cosmological expansion is presently on the increase. The first data came in 1998, and was later verified by NASA's use of the Hubble Space Telescope and several ground based telescopes. Even recently, new improved studies continue to provide verification. 

This unexpected data, in the way that it provides highly elementary information about the universe, is not unlike when Hubble initially discovered the red-shifted light of galaxies. It also carries with it unexpected implications. Hubble's discovery revealed the expansion of the universe, which led to the big bang theory. We eventually learned a great deal about the beginning of time. How much more are we about to learn as the implications of accelerating expansion are explored?

If the universe expands increasingly faster, what is the result? What happens to matter and energy? Will local expansion reach the speed of light? Will time continue forever or will the universe end in the future? The end of time is a new idea that scientists must now consider. Of course such an idea seems unsettling at first, but for those who study the universe more deeply it is supreme knowledge, even a chance, as Einstein put it, to know the mind of God. We may begin to understand the entire universe as a single dynamic system, the big picture, which may explain why there is a universe at all. 

For myself, what all this excitement means, is a bit different. Over the past nine years I have written three books and created my website, in hopes of explaining models and predictions to the scientific community that describe the end of time. Until recently I wasn't taken seriously, since I opposed both the popular Big Crunch theory and the Heat Death model, with a third possibility. In my theory of the future, the universe stretches itself absolutely flat. Based upon a model of all possible states, I argue that the universe evolves to reach the extreme physical state of flat space, a point in time which I argue is the ultimate end result of expansion. In my theory, originally presented in my first book in 1994, expansion stretches matter flat and cools the universe to absolute zero, and this causes time as we know it to end. 

Before concluding too much about what this means, let me say that although I did develop a theory that time ends, a theory that is now correlating with a major scientific discovery, my original goal was to understand the universe if it is infinite, timeless, and eternal. In trying to better comprehend the idea of infinity or all possible universes that can exist, I focused on all possible three dimensional universes, what are in real terms simply patterns. In scientific terms, such a model, with its focus on large-scale static possibilities, would be called an aggregate state space model. 

Surprisingly I did make progress, expanding upon how Ludwig Boltzmann, the author of the second law of thermodynamics, conceptualized ordered and disordered states with what has been referred to as the wedge model. I extended that model mainly by identifying other extremes of possibility besides the most highly ordered state, and by identifying what modern scientists in chaos theory call the great attractor. What I now refer to as the Possible Realm, or SOAPS (the set of all possible states) is not nearly as incomprehensible or complex as most have expected. I now understand why time has a direction and even its cause. 

I should note about my approach, that I am not alone in this kind of endeavor, as there are a growing number of scientists venturing where no one has gone before. There is the theoretical biologist Stuart Kauffman , as well as others of the Santa Fe Institute, working in fields related to complexity theory, who are becoming increasingly skilled at modeling specific contours within the possible realm. The mathematician Ralph Abraham working on chaos theory focuses on attractors in state space. And there are many others. The aim is toward defining the landscape hidden underneath the physics we observe, to recognize from that landscape why and 'how much' the possible realm influences actual events. If we can describe what is possible as a model or schemata we can then see how the invisible landscape of SOAPS (the set of all possible states) shapes the actual.

Boltzmann was the first to develop a scientific model of the possible realm when he developed the second law of thermodynamics. He theorized that there are fewer states of order than states of disorder, and this led others to surmise that there is a single state of highest order. Fewer ordered states toward an absolute of order would explain why we observe the universe evolving from order to disorder, since if there are more possibilities of disorder, the chance for disorder to increase is therefore greater than the chance for order to increase. Having begun in a state of high order, the universe is mainly thought to be expressing itself in a winding down process.

Of course the assumption here is that nature, as the universe unfolds, responds or adheres to what is most probable. This can hardly be an unexpected hypothesis, since we see it evident each time we roll dice or shuffle a deck of cards. Awareness of future probabilities is a common exercise in our lives. In science, the study of probabilities is the essence of quantum mechanics. Yet our present understanding of what is generally probable for the universe (the second law) cannot solve the puzzle of why the universe began in a state of high order, and fails to explain clearly why order is maintained, or why ordered systems emerge. If time innately moves toward what is most probable, we must ask why a universe ever found itself to exist in such an improbable state, near or in the highest state of order. 

What began my own adventure into the possible realm was a belief that the universe out there is infinitely great, a belief similar to the Many Worlds theory. But also, although I do firmly believe that time has a beginning (and an end), I have long been convinced that our true existence is timeless. The changing world that we experience is much like a story written in a book, a book that includes many stories. Time is real. I do not argue that time is an illusion, but I do explain that space-time is a secondary reality, born and created from the greater reality of a timelessness.

It has been about ten years since Stephen Hawking and Jim Hartle of the University of California, published their theory that time has no boundary. If time has no boundary it has no beginning. Hawking himself has become ever more adamant about the idea that the universe exists permanently in what is called imaginary time, named so even though imaginary time may be more elementary than ordinary clock time.

Notably, Albert Einstein held somewhat similar beliefs of time. In reference to Minkowski's "Space World" Einstein described our space-time as a four dimensional existence, rather than a three dimensional world that evolves. Until he died in April of 1955, Einstein wrote privately of his belief that both past and future exist simultaneously. It was not much later that the physicist Richard Feynman developed his Sum Over Histories interpretation of quantum mechanics in which Feynman himself described time as a direction in space. 

Still more recently, there is exciting developments. The English physicist Julian Barbour has written a book about timelessness entitled; The End of Time. Highly related to my own work, in his book Barbour considers ways of understanding aggregate state space, naming the possible realm Platonia. Barbour foresees that the future of physics lies in the study of the universe as it exists timelessly. 

Also, physicist and computer guru David Deutsch is well known for his book The Fabric of Reality, in which he proposes the concept of a multiverse, the assembly of many worlds. As I proposed in my book in 1994, Deutsch also argues the necessity of what he calls snapshots of time, or block universes, and conclusively states that, "Our consciousness exists at all our (waking) moments." 

From Einstein to present day, the common direction and evolution of thought seems evident here, if somewhat profound. We sense existence evolving, and we think we are only here, yet it may be that the past and future exist as real as each single moment we experience, and thus we are simultaneously in our past and in our future, experiencing each individual moment as if each is the only one, even though all exist. 

One might be led to wonder about the landscape of this timeless universe, and this question is in fact what led me to a study of the infinite and allowed me to develop the theories presented here. Actually, for myself, it is not merely a study of possibilities, but rather, a study of actualities, and I work to understand why certain places in a forever existence are distinct and yet unified to construct what we call time. 

First I will present ultimate boundaries that exist and shape the aggregate possible realm and in so doing forge a theory to explain why time has a direction and why the universe expands.  I propose that absolute flat space is the ultimate balance point, making it an ultimate attractor within state space. In science, there is a known but not fully understood point of absolute zero that is common to all physical properties. This ultimate point in nature is a zero mass, zero temperature, zero curvature (flat space), and a zero time. As I shall explain, this zero is the great attractor that begins and ends time. 

This website has been written for the average reader and a scientific background is helpful, but not mandatory. My ability to explain my theories has greatly improved over the years. I was happy to find that Scientific American had placed a link to my site in their April online issue. In addition to hundreds of non-scientists, I have had several scientists around the world contact me and voice their approval of my work, though generally the theory has not yet been recognized or published by any scientific media. 

In explaining ideas, I am fortunate that my work can sometimes be related to similar directions of thought of Stephen Hawking and some of the terminology was adopted from Stuart Kauffman's exciting work. Clearly what I propose has some relationship to the well known theories of the late Richard Feynman. Much of what follows I believe contributes to the pool of ideas brought about by the No Boundary Proposal, and Feynman's Sum Over Histories Theory

One part of my theory, undoubtedly my most important theory or proposal, is the recognition that rather than ordered and disordered states, there are two opposite directions of increasing order in nature. This theory clearly relates to the concept of Implicate Order proposed by David Bohm to explain the nature of quantum mechanics. Essentially I explain distinctions between what I call Grouping Order and Symmetry Order. The surprising recognition is that the order of each increases in opposite directions, and thus the order of one is the disorder of the other. Consequently it becomes necessary to divide what we ordinarily consider to be simply order into two distinct contrasting types or directions. This I insist is a good hard scientific law which has a great impact on our present comprehension of nature. 

I hope you enjoy the tour. I know it may seem to a few that we are not ready to look outward beyond known physical laws and visible galaxies into worlds we can only imagine. But having been there I know the truth is that our apprehension of the infinite is why we have not yet made sense of the big picture. Our tendency to leave the greater world unexplored, is the reason we have yet to understand why there are stars and galaxies, or why all of space is expanding, or why the universe is so highly ordered and systematic. It can be discovered that the infinite universe has a shape, a shape that relates intimately to ourselves, and to the elementary physics of our spacetime universe. 

Sincerely, Gevin Giorbran
First page:  Two Types of Order

Papers Written For the Scientist:
Macrocosmic Symmetry 
Modeling the Macrocosmic Structure of All Possible Universes


Last updated Aug. 2001

Note: I enjoy getting feedback and discussing these issues, so be sure and
e-mail when you're done reading.  I do need greater support from scientists and professionals. Help me get this work into the mainstream!

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